Spotters in "Nutrition and Health: Pulses/Legumes" for CFM & MPH students

Pulses/ legumes (दालें)

(i) Soyabean (सोयाबीन):


             

Nutritional Values (per 100 gm) & important features:

  • Carbohydrate: 30 gm
  • Protein: 43.2 gm, limiting amino acid is methionine
  • Fat: 19.5 gm
  • Energy: 432 kcal
  • Minerals: ( Ca-240 mg, Iron-10.4 mg)
  • Crude fiber: 9.3 gm
  • Niacin: 3.2 mg
  • Thiamine: 0.73 mg
  • Riboflavin: 0.39 mg
  • Recommended intake: 60 gm for vegetarians & 30 gm for non-vegetarians
  • Clinical importance: Soyabean are of relatively high nutritive value.

(ii) Bengal gram ( काला चना)




Nutritional Values (per 100 gm) & important features:

  • Carbohydrate: 60.9 gm
  • Protein: 17.1 gm, poor in cysteine & methionine, rich in lysine 
  • Fat: 5.3 gm
  • Energy: 360 kcal
  • Minerals: 3 gm ( Ca-202 mg, P-302 mg, Iron-4.6 mg)
  • Crude fiber: 3.9 gm
  • Niacin: 2.9 mg
  • Thiamine: 0.30 mg
  • Riboflavin: 0.15 mg
  • Folic acid: 186 mg
  • Vitamin C: 3 mg
  • Carotene: 189 µg
  • Moisture: 9.8 gm
  • Recommended intake: 60 gm for vegetarians & 30 gm for non-vegetarians
  • Clinical importance: Nutritive value of pulses can be increased by germination. It increases vitamin B & C content.

(iii) Black gram (उड़द दाल):









Nutritional Values (per 100 gm) & important features:

  • Carbohydrate: 59.6 gm
  • Protein: 24.0 gm, poor in cysteine & methionine, rich in lysine 
  • Fat: 1.4 gm
  • Energy: 347 kcal
  • Minerals: 3.2 gm ( Ca- 154 mg, P- 385mg, Iron-3.8 mg)
  • Crude fiber: 0.9 gm
  • Niacin:  2.0 mg
  • Thiamine: 0.42 mg
  • Riboflavin: 0.20 mg
  • Folic acid: 132 mg
  • Carotene: 38 µg
  • Moisture: 10.9 gm
  • Recommended intake: 60 gm for vegetarians & 30 gm for non-vegetarians
  • Clinical importance: Adds bulk to the stool & eases bowel movement hence helps in treating constipation.

(iv) Red gram/ Pigeon pea (अरहर दाल/ तूर दाल):





Nutritional Values (per 100 gm) & important features:

  • Carbohydrate: 57.6 gm
  • Protein: 22.3 gm, poor in cysteine & methionine, rich in lysine 
  • Fat: 1.7 gm
  • Energy: 335 kcal
  • Minerals: 3.5 gm ( Ca-73 mg, P- 304 mg, Iron-2.7 mg)
  • Crude fiber: 1.5 gm
  • Niacin: 2.9 mg
  • Thiamine: 0.45 mg
  • Riboflavin: 0.19 mg
  • Folic acid: 103 mg
  • Carotene:  132 µg
  • Moisture: 13.4 gm
  • Recommended intake: 60 gm for vegetarians & 30 gm for non-vegetarians
  • A gluten free food item
  • Clinical importance: Along  with good amount of dietary fibers it also contains isoflavone antioxidants which have been found to reduce post-menopausal cancers and osteoporosis.

(v) Green gram (मूंग दाल):






Nutritional Values (per 100 gm) & important features:

  • Carbohydrate: 56.7 gm
  • Protein: 24.5 gm, poor in cysteine & methionine, rich in lysine 
  • Fat: 1.2 gm
  • Energy: 348 kcal
  • Minerals: 3.5 gm ( Ca- 75 mg, P-326  mg, Iron-3.9 mg)
  • Crude fiber: 4.1 gm
  • Niacin: 2.4 mg
  • Thiamine: 0.47 mg
  • Riboflavin: 0.21 mg
  • Folate: 625 µg
  • Vitamin C: 4.8 mg
  • Carotene:  94 µg
  • Moisture: 10.4 gm
  • A gluten free food item
  • Recommended intake: 60 gm for vegetarians & 30 gm for non-vegetarians
  • Clinical importance: Contains good amount of dietary fibers, folate, thiamine & vitamin C. Nutritive value can be increased by germination. It increases vitamin B & C content.

(vi) Peas dry/ White pea ( सूखी मटर/ सफेद मटर):





Nutritional Values (per 100 gm) & important features:

  • Carbohydrate: 56.5 gm
  • Protein: 19.7 gm, poor in cysteine & methionine, rich in lysine 
  • Fat: 1.1 gm
  • Energy: 315 kcal
  • Minerals: 2.2 gm ( Ca-75 mg, P-298 mg, Iron-7.05 mg)
  • Crude fiber: 4.5 gm
  • Niacin: 3.4 mg
  • Thiamine: 0.47 mg
  • Riboflavin: 0.19 mg
  • Folic acid: 7.5 mg
  • Carotene: 39 µg
  • Moisture: 16 gm
  • Recommended intake: 60 gm for vegetarians & 30 gm for non-vegetarians
  • Clinical importance: Contains b-sitosterol which helps in lowering cholesterol.

(vii) Horse gram (गहत/ कुल्थी दाल):




Nutritional Values (per 100 gm) & important features:

  • Carbohydrate: 57.2 gm
  • Protein: 22.0 gm, poor in cysteine & methionine, rich in lysine 
  • Fat: 0.5 gm
  • Energy: 321 kcal
  • Minerals: 3.2 gm ( Ca- 287 mg, P- 311 mg, Iron-6.77 mg)
  • Crude fiber: 5.3 gm
  • Niacin: 1.5 mg
  • Thiamine: 0.42 mg
  • Riboflavin: 0.2 mg
  • Vitamin C: 1 mg
  • Carotene:  71 µg
  • Moisture: 11.8 gm
  • Recommended intake: 60 gm for vegetarians & 30 gm for non-vegetarians
  • Clinical importance: Rich in iron, Ca. Nutritive value can be increased by germination. It increases vitamin B & C content.

(viii) Red lentils (मसूर दाल): 








Nutritional Values (per 100 gm) & important features:

  • Carbohydrate: 59.0 gm
  • Protein: 25.1 gm, poor in cysteine & methionine, rich in lysine 
  • Fat: 0.7 gm
  • Energy: 343 kcal
  • Minerals: 2.1 gm ( Ca- 69 mg, P- 293 mg, Iron- 7.58 mg)
  • Crude fiber: 0.7 gm
  • Folic acid: 479 µg
  • Moisture:12.4 gm
  • A gluten free food item
  • Recommended intake: 60 gm for vegetarians & 30 gm for non-vegetarians

(ix) Kidney beans/ Rajmah (राजमा):


Nutritional Values (per 100 gm) & important features:

  • Carbohydrate: 60.6 gm
  • Protein: 22.9 gm, poor in cysteine & methionine, rich in lysine 
  • Fat: 1.3 gm
  • Energy: 346 kcal
  • Minerals: 3.2 gm ( Ca- 260 mg, P-410 mg, Iron-5.1 mg)
  • Crude fiber: 4.8 gm
  • Moisture: 12 gm
  • Recommended intake: 60 gm for vegetarians & 30 gm for non-vegetarians
  • Clinical importance: Should always be eaten well cooked. Raw or improperly beans may be toxic.

(x) Khesari dal (खेसारी दाल): 






Nutritional Values (per 100 gm) & important features:

  • Carbohydrate: 56.6 gm
  • Protein: 28.2 gm, poor in cysteine & methionine, rich in lysine 
  • Fat: 0.6 gm
  • Energy: 345 kcal
  • Minerals: 2.3 gm ( Ca-90 mg, P-317 mg, Iron-6.3 mg)
  • Crude fiber: 2.3 gm
  • Moisture: 10.0 gm
  • Clinical importance: Diets containing 30% of this dal if taken over a period of 2-6 months will result in neurolathyrism due to presence of a toxin 'Beta oxalyl amino alanine (BOAA).
  • Steeping method & parboiling is recommended for detoxicating this pulse.

References:
  1. National Institute of Nutrition (India), Gopalan, C., Rama, S. B. V., & Balasubramanian, S. C. (1978). Nutritive value of Indian foods. Hyderabad, India: National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research.
  2. Park, K. (2015). Park's textbook of preventive and social medicine. 23rd. Jabalpur, India: M/S Banarsidas Bhanot.
  3. Longvah T, An-antan I, Bhaskarachary K, Venkaiah K. Indian food composition tables. Hyderabad: ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition; 2017.
  4. Mohan Ram M and I Gopalan (1981). Nutritional Disabilities, ICMR, National Institute of Nutrition, Hydrabad.
  5. Tricase, C., Amicarelli, V., Lamonaca, E., & Rana, R. L. (2018). Economic analysis of the barley market and related uses. In Grasses as Food and Feed. IntechOpen.
  6. https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/172436/nutrients
  7. https://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_caca27.pdf
  8. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/foods/kidney-beans#bottom-line
  9. https://depositphotos.com/113096854/stock-photo-pile-of-soybean.html photo credit
  10. https://www.soya.be/nutritional-values-of-soybeans.php
  11. https://www.grabvia.com/channa-brown-500-gm-pouch.html photo credit
  12. https://my247mart.com/rice-oil-noodles-flour-pulses/370-split-bengal-gram-chana-dal-1-kg.html photo credit
  13. https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/vigna-mungo-on-white-background-263929991 photo credit
  14. https://www.dreamstime.com/urad-dal-split-black-gram-black-gram-split-pulse-unpolished-cover-isolated-white-background-image105548645 photo credit
  15. https://depositphotos.com/202546464/stock-photo-split-black-lentil-also-know.html photo credit
  16. https://grocerplus.in/product/green-moong-split-chilka/ photo credit
  17. https://zaykarecipes.com/pulses-name.html photo credit 
  18. https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photos-yellow-moong-dal-skinned-split-mung-bean-image21844463 photo credit
  19. https://www.indiamart.com/proddetail/dried-green-pea-19407721855.html photo credit
  20. https://www.123rf.com/photo_13493383_pile-dry-solid-green-peas-isolated-on-white-background.html photo credit
  21. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macrotyloma_uniflorum photo credit
  22. https://www.jaswantskitchen.com/products/red-lentils photo credit
  23. https://www.123rf.com/photo_13493421_pile-red-kidney-bean-isolated-on-white-background-also-called-rajma-or-mexican-bean-a-large-kidney-s.htm photo credit
  24. https://sasroe.com/product/khesari-dal/ photo credit

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