Spotters in "Environment and Health: Mosquitoes- Anopheles" for CFM & MPH students

Anopheles Mosquito:

Also known as the sophisticated mosquito. The flight range is 3-5 km. Around 45 species of anopheles mosquitoes have been found in India but only a few of them have been incriminated as vectors or carriers of malaria. These are An. fluviatilis & An. minimum (foot-hill regions), An. sundaicus & An. stephensi (coastal regions) and An culicifacies & An. philippinensis (planes).

1. Eggs:

Important points:

  • Eggs laid on the surface of the clean water.
  • 100-250 at a time.
  • This stage lasts for 1-2 days.
  • Laid singly, boat-shaped & possess lateral floats.

2. Larva:

Important points:

  • The larva is a free-swimming creature.
  • Passes through 4 stages called 'instars' with moulting between each stage.
  • Floats horizontally in water/ rests parallel to the water surface.
  • No siphon tube at the tip of its abdomen. 
  • Palmate hairs present on abdominal segments.

3. Pupa:

Important points:

  • The pupa is comma-shaped in appearance, with a large rounded cephalothorax and a narrow abdomen.
  • Represents the resting stage.
  • Lasts for 1-2 days.
  • Have two respiratory tubes/ trumpets in the thorax.
  • Green in color.
  • Does not feed, prefers to stay quiet at the water surface.
  • The Siphon tube is broad & short.

4. Adult Male & Female:

Important points:

  • The life cycle from egg to adult is complete in 7-10 days.
  • Adult mosquito lives for about 2 weeks.
  • When at rest, inclined at an angle to the surface.
  • Wings spotted.
  • Palpi long in both sexes.

Public Health Importance:

Female Anopheles mosquito transmits
  • Malaria 
  • Filaria (Not in India)


  1. Park, K. (2019). Park's textbook of preventive and social medicine. 25th. Jabalpur, India: M/S Banarsidas Bhanot.
  2. Kadri AM. (2019). IAPSM's Textbook of Community Medicine. 1st. New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.
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