Spotters in "Environment and Health: Mosquitoes- Anopheles" for CFM & MPH students
Also known as the sophisticated mosquito. The flight range is 3-5 km. Around 45 species of anopheles mosquitoes have been found in India but only a few of them have been incriminated as vectors or carriers of malaria. These are An. fluviatilis & An. minimum (foot-hill regions), An. sundaicus & An. stephensi (coastal regions) and An culicifacies & An. philippinensis (planes).
- Eggs laid on the surface of the clean water.
- 100-250 at a time.
- This stage lasts for 1-2 days.
- Laid singly, boat-shaped & possess lateral floats.
- The larva is a free-swimming creature.
- Passes through 4 stages called 'instars' with moulting between each stage.
- Floats horizontally in water/ rests parallel to the water surface.
- No siphon tube at the tip of its abdomen.
- Palmate hairs present on abdominal segments.
- The pupa is comma-shaped in appearance, with a large rounded cephalothorax and a narrow abdomen.
- Represents the resting stage.
- Lasts for 1-2 days.
- Have two respiratory tubes/ trumpets in the thorax.
- Green in color.
- Does not feed, prefers to stay quiet at the water surface.
- The Siphon tube is broad & short.
4. Adult Male & Female:
- The life cycle from egg to adult is complete in 7-10 days.
- Adult mosquito lives for about 2 weeks.
- When at rest, inclined at an angle to the surface.
- Wings spotted.
- Palpi long in both sexes.
Public Health Importance:
- Filaria (Not in India)
- Park, K. (2019). Park's textbook of preventive and social medicine. 25th. Jabalpur, India: M/S Banarsidas Bhanot.
- Kadri AM. (2019). IAPSM's Textbook of Community Medicine. 1st. New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.
- http://medent.usyd.edu.au/arbovirus/mosquit/photos/mosquitophotos_anopheles.htm photo credit
- https://www.quora.com/What-do-mosquito-eggs-look-like photo credit
- https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/culicidae photo credit
- https://somepomed.org/articulos/contents/mobipreview.htm?35/27/36282 photo credit
- https://bugguide.net/node/view/583316 photo credit
- https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Anopheles-larva-left-note-absence-of-siphon-and-subventral-tufts-that-characterize_fig3_263420029 photo credit
- https://onlinesciencenotes.com/differences-anopheles-culex/ photo credit
- https://www.inds.co.uk/product/anopheles-pupa-w-m/ photo credit
- https://wikieducator.org/Lesson_1:Introduction_To_Malaria photo credit