Spotters in "Environment and Health: Mosquitoes- Anopheles" for CFM & MPH students

Anopheles Mosquito:

Also known as the sophisticated mosquito. The flight range is 3-5 km. Around 45 species of anopheles mosquitoes have been found in India but only a few of them have been incriminated as vectors or carriers of malaria. These are An. fluviatilis & An. minimum (foot-hill regions), An. sundaicus & An. stephensi (coastal regions) and An culicifacies & An. philippinensis (planes).

1. Eggs:


Important points:

  • Eggs laid on the surface of the clean water.
  • 100-250 at a time.
  • This stage lasts for 1-2 days.
  • Laid singly, boat-shaped & possess lateral floats.

2. Larva:


Important points:

  • The larva is a free-swimming creature.
  • Passes through 4 stages called 'instars' with moulting between each stage.
  • Floats horizontally in water/ rests parallel to the water surface.
  • No siphon tube at the tip of its abdomen. 
  • Palmate hairs present on abdominal segments.

3. Pupa:

Important points:

  • The pupa is comma-shaped in appearance, with a large rounded cephalothorax and a narrow abdomen.
  • Represents the resting stage.
  • Lasts for 1-2 days.
  • Have two respiratory tubes/ trumpets in the thorax.
  • Green in color.
  • Does not feed, prefers to stay quiet at the water surface.
  • The Siphon tube is broad & short.


4. Adult Male & Female:


Important points:

  • The life cycle from egg to adult is complete in 7-10 days.
  • Adult mosquito lives for about 2 weeks.
  • When at rest, inclined at an angle to the surface.
  • Wings spotted.
  • Palpi long in both sexes.

Public Health Importance:

Female Anopheles mosquito transmits
  • Malaria 
  • Filaria (Not in India)

References:

  1. Park, K. (2019). Park's textbook of preventive and social medicine. 25th. Jabalpur, India: M/S Banarsidas Bhanot.
  2. Kadri AM. (2019). IAPSM's Textbook of Community Medicine. 1st. New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.
  3. http://medent.usyd.edu.au/arbovirus/mosquit/photos/mosquitophotos_anopheles.htm photo credit
  4. https://www.quora.com/What-do-mosquito-eggs-look-like photo credit
  5. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/culicidae photo credit
  6. https://somepomed.org/articulos/contents/mobipreview.htm?35/27/36282 photo credit
  7. https://bugguide.net/node/view/583316 photo credit
  8. https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Anopheles-larva-left-note-absence-of-siphon-and-subventral-tufts-that-characterize_fig3_263420029 photo credit
  9. https://onlinesciencenotes.com/differences-anopheles-culex/ photo credit
  10. https://www.inds.co.uk/product/anopheles-pupa-w-m/ photo credit
  11. https://wikieducator.org/Lesson_1:Introduction_To_Malaria photo credit

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