Spotters in "Environment and Health: Sandflies " for CFM & MPH students
Sandflies are nocturnal pests & their bites are irritating and painful. It lives in holes & crevices in walls, trees, etc. Important species are P. argentipes, P. papatasii, P. sergenti, and S. punjabensis.
- Laid in damp, dark places in the vicinity of cattle sheds & poultry.
- Comparatively large, torpedo-shaped with longitudinal wavy lines on the outside.
- Size: 0.3-0.5 mm long and 0.1-0.15 mm wide.
- Color: white when freshly deposited to brown or black.
- Deposited singularly or in clusters.
- Eggs hatch within 7 days.
- These are hairy maggots with a distinct head, thorax & abdomen.
- The last abdominal segment carries 2 pairs of long stout hairs.
- One pair is remarkably long.
- It feeds on decaying organic matter.
- Becomes a pupa in about 2 weeks.
- It lasts for about a week.
- Newly formed sand fly pupae are white, turning yellow, and finally almost black before adult emergence.
- The average lifespan is about 2 weeks.
- Light or dark brown in color.
- Size: 1.5 to 2.5 mm in length.
- Body & wings densely clothed with hair.
- The body is divided into head, thorax & abdomen.
- Smaller than mosquitoes.
- Wings: up-right & lanceolate in shape.
- Legs: longer compared to the size of the body.
- Hopping: sandflies hop about & do not fly by choice and remain confined to within 50 yards of their breeding places.
- Only females bite.
- Park, K. (2019). Park's textbook of preventive and social medicine. 25th. Jabalpur, India: M/S Banarsidas Bhanot.
- Kadri AM. (2019). IAPSM's Textbook of Community Medicine. 1st. New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.
- https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/disease-vectors/facts/phlebotomine-sand-flies photo credit
- http://queenslandcoast.blogspot.com/2017/12/the-life-of-biting-sand-flies.html photo credit