Spotters in "Nutrition: Cereals and millets" for CFM & MPH students

Cereals and millets

Cereals:

(i) Rice (चावल):

(a) White Rice/Polished Rice


Nutritional values (per 100 gm) & important features:
  • Carbohydrate: 78.2 gm
  • Protein: 6.8 gm, richer in lysine, loss up to 15% due to milling
  • Fat: 0.5 gm
  • Energy: 345 kcal
  • Minerals: 0.6 gm ( Ca-10 mg, P-160 mg, Iron-0.7 mg)
  • Crude fiber: 0.2 gm
  • Niacin: 1.9 mg, loss up to 60 % due to milling
  • Thiamine: 0.06 mg,  loss up to 75% due to milling
  • Riboflavin: 0.06 mg, loss up to 60% due to milling
  • Devoid of vitamins A,D & C
  • Poor source of Ca & Iron
  • NPU: 65% 
  • Clinical importance: People subsisting mainly on polished rice are prone to develop thiamine deficiency disease 'Beriberi'
  • Washing and draining excess water after cooking leads to further loss of B-group vitamins
(b) Brown Rice/ Parboiled Rice



Nutritional Values (per 100 gm) & important features:
  • Carbohydrate: 78.2 gm
  • Protein: 6.4 gm, richer in lysine, no loss due to milling
  • Fat: 0.4 gm
  • Energy: 345 kcal
  • Minerals: 0.7 gm ( Ca-9 mg, P-143 mg, Iron-1.0 mg) 
  • Crude fiber: 0.2 gm
  • Niacin: 3.8 mg, no loss due to milling
  • Thiamine: 0.21 mg,  no loss due to milling
  • Riboflavin: 0.05 mg, no loss due to milling
  • Devoid of vitamins A,D & C
  • Poor source of Ca & Iron
  • NPU: 65% 
  • Clinical importance: people subsisting on parboiled rice are less prone to develop thiamine deficiency disease Beriberi as parboiling preserves the nutrients in the rice grains.
  • Parboiled of rice is partial cooking of rice in steam & is resistant to insect invasion 
  • Have a peculiar smell
  • The technique recommended by the Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore is 'Hot soaking process'.

(ii) Wheat (गेहूँ):


Nutritional Values (per 100 gm) & important features:
  • Carbohydrate: 71.2 gm
  • Protein: 11.81 gm, limiting amino acids are lysine & threonine 
  • Fat: 1.5 gm
  • Energy: 346 kcal
  • Minerals: 1.5 gm ( Ca-41 mg, P-306 mg, Iron-5.3 mg) 
  • Crude fiber: 1.2 gm
  • Niacin: 5.0 mg
  • Thiamine: 0.45 mg
  • Riboflavin: 0.17 mg
  • NPU: 51%
  • Clinical importance: Maida/white flour is poor in nutrients but whole grain flour is rich in vitamin B. Maida is rich & Suji is poor source of gluten.

(iii) Maize (मक्का):


Nutritional Values (per 100 gm) & important features:

  • Carbohydrate:  66.2 gm
  • Protein: 11.1 gm, deficient in lysine & tryptophan
  • Fat: 3.6 gm
  • Energy: 342 kcal
  • Minerals: 1.5 gm ( Ca-10 mg, P-348 mg, Iron-2.3 mg)
  • Crude fiber: 0.7 gm
  • Niacin: 1.8 mg
  • Thiamine: 0.42 mg
  • Riboflavin: 0.1 mg
  • NPU: 65% 
  • Chief proteins glutelin & zein
  • Clinical importance: Maize is rich in leucine which interferes with conversion of tryptophan into niacin hence causes pellagra due to niacin deficiency among people having maize as staple food.
  • Quality of maize protein has been improved by incorporation of opaque-2 gene

Millets:

(i) Jowar/Sorghum (ज्वार):




Nutritional Values (per 100 gm) & important features:

  • Carbohydrate: 72.6 gm
  • Protein: 10.4 gm, limiting in lysine & threonine
  • Fat: 1.9 gm
  • Energy: 349 kcal
  • Minerals: 1.6 gm ( Ca-25 mg, P-222 mg, Iron-4.1 mg)
  • Crude fiber: 1.6 gm
  • Niacin: 3.1 mg
  • Thiamine: 0.3 mg
  • Riboflavin: 1.3 mg
  • Predominantly consumed in Telengana & Marathwada
  • Clinical importance: Some varieties of jowar contains high amount of leucine which interferes with conversion of tryptophan to niacin and hence causes pellagra.

(ii) Bajra/ Pearl millet (बाजरा):





Nutritional Values (per 100 gm) & important features:

  • Carbohydrate: 67.5 gm
  • Protein: 11.6 gm, deficient in lysine & threonine
  • Fat: 5.0 gm
  • Energy: 361 kcal
  • Minerals: 2.3 gm ( Ca-42 mg, P-296 mg, Iron-8 mg)
  • Crude fiber: 1.2 gm
  • Niacin: 2.3 mg
  • Thiamine: 0.3 mg
  • Riboflavin: 0.25 mg
  • Staple food in Rajasthan, Gujrat & Maharashtra 
  • Clinical importance: Contains significant amount of group B vitamins, Iron & Ca

(iii) Ragi (रागी): 





Nutritional Values (per 100 gm) & important features:

  • Carbohydrate: 72.0 gm
  • Protein: 7.3 gm
  • Fat: 1.3 gm
  • Energy: 328 kcal
  • Minerals: 2.7 gm ( Ca-344 mg, P-283 mg, Iron- 3.9mg)
  • Crude fiber: 3.6 gm
  • Niacin: 2.3 mg
  • Thiamine: 0.2 mg
  • Riboflavin: 0.18 mg
  • Popular millet in Andhra & Karnataka
  • Clinical importance: Rich in Calcium & has all essential amino acids in adequate amount hence used as suitable weaning food

(iv) Barley (जौ): 



Nutritional Values (per 100 gm) & important features:

  • Carbohydrate: 69.5 gm
  • Protein: 11.5 gm
  • Fat: 1.3 gm
  • Energy: 336 kcal
  • Minerals: 1.2 gm ( Ca-26 mg, P-215 mg, Iron-1.6 mg)
  • Crude fiber: 3.9 gm
  • Niacin: 5.4 mg
  • Thiamine: 0.47 mg
  • Riboflavin: 0.2 mg
  • Clinical importance: Barley has been reevaluated as having significant benefits in human health functions such as cholesterol-lowering, blood sugar control, and colon health.

References:
  1. National Institute of Nutrition (India), Gopalan, C., Rama, S. B. V., & Balasubramanian, S. C. (1978). Nutritive value of Indian foods. Hyderabad, India: National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research.
  2. Park, K. (2015). Park's textbook of preventive and social medicine. 23rd. Jabalpur, India: M/S Banarsidas Bhanot.
  3. Chauliac, M. (1984). Children in tropics No.147-148 P.26
  4. Swaminathan, M. (1977). Hand book of food and nutrition. Hand book of food and nutrition.
  5. Tricase, C., Amicarelli, V., Lamonaca, E., & Rana, R. L. (2018). Economic analysis of the barley market and related uses. In Grasses as Food and Feed. IntechOpen.
  6. https://www.eatthismuch.com/food/nutrition/white-rice,4814/  photo credit
  7. https://www.123rf.com/photo_66535122_bowl-of-long-grain-parboiled-rice-isolated-on-white-spilled-rice-.html photo credit
  8. https://www.123rf.com/photo_93522781_pile-of-wheat-grain-isolated-on-white-background.html photo credit
  9. https://www.harrisonsrural.com.au/product/corn-whole-25kg/ photo credit
  10. https://depositphotos.com/72892933/stock-photo-heap-of-jowar-sorghum-on.html photo credit
  11. https://depositphotos.com/202334540/stock-photo-pearl-millet-seeds-also-know.html photo credit
  12. https://www.naturespring.in/products/flours/ photo credit
  13. https://www.123rf.com/photo_83760353_pile-of-barley-seeds-isolated-on-white.html photo credit



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