Spotters in "Environment and Health: Mosquito control Measures" for CFM & MPH students

The integrated approach of mosquito control:

This is an approach that avoids the excessive use of any one method (e.g insecticides) but tries to combine one or more methods with a view to obtain maximum results with minimum inputs and also to prevent environmental pollution with toxic chemicals & development of insecticide resistance. The various methods of mosquito control are as follows:

1. Anti- Larval Measures:

(a) Environmental Control:

Important Points:

Source reduction: Mainly the elimination of mosquito breeding places by minor engineering methods such as 

  • Filling- of cesspools & open ditches and arrangement for adequate collection, removal, and disposal of sewage & wastewater.
  • Leveling & getting rid of water-holding containers such as discarded tins, empty pots, broken bottles, coconut shells, etc.
  • Drainage of breeding places, and 
  • Water management (e.g intermittent irrigation) & removal of aquatic plants or destruction by herbicides.
  • Rendering the water unsuitable for breeding- changing salinity of the water.

(b) Chemical control:

(i) Mineral Oils:

Important Points:

  • One of the oldest methods.
  • Widely used oils are diesel oil, fuel oil, kerosene, various fractions of crude oil & special oils (e.g mosquito larvicidal oil).
  • Mechanism of action: Oils kill larvae & pulse within a short time by spreading over the water surface & forming a thin film that cuts off the air supply.
  • It also has specific toxic action on stages of insects.
  • The application rate is 40 to 90 liters per hectare once a week.
  • Disadvantages: Oils render water unfit for drinking & kill fishes.

(ii) Paris green/ Copper acetoarsenite:

Important Points:
  • It is an emerald green, micro-crystalline powder practically insoluble in water.
  • A good sample must contain 50% arsenious oxide.
  • Mechanism of action: It is a stomach poison. Kills mainly surface feeders (e.g anopheles larvae) but bottom feeders can also be killed if the special granular form is applied.
  • Applied as 2% dust prepared by 2 kg of Paris green & 98 kg of diluent (e.g soapstone powder or soaked lime) in a 'rotary mixer' and the resulting mixture is of size 20-25 microns.
  • Dusting is done by hand blowers or rotary blowers.
  • The recommended dose is 1 kg of actual peris green per hectare of water surface.
  • It does not harm fishes, humans, or domestic animals.

(iii) Synthetic insecticides:

Important Points:
  • The most effective insecticides are Fenthion, Chlorpyrifos, and Abate.
  • Mechanism of action: These organophosphorus compounds hydrolyze quickly in water. Abate (at a concentration of 1.0 ppm) is a very effective larvicide and the least toxic.
  • Dosage: Abate 56-112 g/ ha, Malathion 224-672 g/ ha, Fenthion 22-112 g/ ha, Chloropyrifos 11-16 g/ha.
  • The organochlorine compounds (e.g DDT, HCH) are not recommended due to their long residual effect, water contamination & an increased risk of developing resistance.

(c) Biological control:

Important Points:

  • Gambusia affinis & Lebister reticulatus (Barbados Millions) are fishes that feed readily on mosquito larvae.
  • These can be used in burrow pits, sewage oxidation ponds, ornamental ponds, cisterns, and farm ponds.

2. Anti- Adult Measures:

(a) Residual sprays:

Important Points:

  • These are most effective against adult mosquitoes. DDT is the insecticide of choice but where DDT resistance is encountered, malathion, propouxur & lindane are recommended. 
  • Dosage: DDT 1-2 g/ m2 for 6-12 months, Lindane 0.5 g/m2 for 3 months, Malathion 2 g/m2 for 3 months, OMS-33 2 g/m2 for 3 months.

(b) Space sprays:

Important Points:

  • These formulations are sprayed into the atmosphere in the form of a mist or fog to kill insects. Common space sprays are 
  • (i) Pyrethrum extract- the active principle (pyrethrin) is a nerve poison & kills insects instantly on mere contact. Dosage is 1 oz (0.1%) per 1000 C. ft. of space. No residual action.
  • (ii) Residual insecticides- Extensively used insecticides used for ULV (ultra-low volume) fogging are malathion and fenitrothion.

(c) Genetic control:

Important points:

  • Control of mosquitoes by genetic methods such as sterile male technique, cytoplasmic incompatibility, chromosomal translocation, sex distortion, gene replacement has been explored well.
  • Advantages- These are cheaper, more efficient & no vector resistance.

3. Protection Against Mosquito Bites:

(a) Mosquito net:



Important points:

  • Offers protection during sleep.
  • The material should be white to detect mosquitoes.
  • The best pattern is a rectangular net.
  • The size of openings in the net should not exceed 0.0475 inches in any diameter.
  • The number of holes in one square inch is usually 150.

(b) Screening:

Important points:

  • Screening of buildings with copper & bronze gauze having 16 messes to the inch is recommended.
  • The aperture should not be larger than 0.0475 inches.
  • Screening of buildings is costly but gives excellent results.

(c) Repellents/ Culicifuges:

Important points:

  • Used mainly for application on the skin.
  • Diethyltoluamide (deet) is an outstanding, all-purpose repellent & remain active for 18-20 hours against C. fatigans.
  • Other repellents are indalone, dimethyl phthalate, dimethyl garbage, ethyl hexanediol, etc.
  • The chief advantage is the short duration of protection.

References:

  1. Park, K. (2019). Park's textbook of preventive and social medicine. 25th. Jabalpur, India: M/S Banarsidas Bhanot.
  2. Kadri AM. (2019). IAPSM's Textbook of Community Medicine. 1st. New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.
  3. https://medium.com/@sidra.shafique/dengue-awareness-for-kids-3dcf6d9e1cb2 photo credit
  4. https://www.open.edu/openlearncreate/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=92&printable=1 photo credit
  5. https://www.csrd.bc.ca/services/mosquito-control photo credit
  6. https://usa.exportersindia.com/felton-commodities-trading-llc-company4384652/kerosene-oil-4652382.htm photo credit
  7. https://www.amsoil.com/p/signature-series-max-duty-synthetic-diesel-oil-10w-30-dtt/ photo credit
  8. https://www.indiamart.com/proddetail/mosquito-larvicide-oil-16038578991.html photo credit
  9. https://pyrodata.com/chemicals/Paris-Green photo credit
  10. https://www.wallpapertip.com/wpic/iRioTxT_bergers-pure-paris-green/ photo credit
  11. https://www.indiamart.com/proddetail/abate-1sg-12943344391.html photo credit
  12. https://periodictable.com/Items/033.10/ photo credit
  13. https://dir.indiamart.com/impcat/chlorpyrifos.html photo credit
  14. https://www.mytools.my/ch-fenthion-50-1l photo credit
  15. https://www.britannica.com/animal/mosquitofish photo credit
  16. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guppy photo credit
  17. https://time.com/3923291/ddt-pregnancy-breast-cancer/ photo credit
  18. http://hockley.co.uk/crop-protection/insecticides/ photo credit
  19. https://in.all.biz/lindane-termiticide-g341963 photo credit
  20. https://www.ebay.com.au/itm/SHARP-SHOOTER-NATURAL-PYRETHRUM-INSECT-SPRAY-250ml-Concentrate-Pyrethrin-Extract-/161822561264 photo credit
  21. https://barmac.com.au/product/methograin-fenitrothion-insecticide/ photo credit
  22. https://theday.co.uk/stories/mutant-mosquitoes-to-wage-war-on-malaria photo credit
  23. https://app.emaze.com/@AOLTZQQR#1 photo credit
  24. https://www.amazon.in/Popular-Mosquito-Control-Double-Annoying/dp/B082M99F8Z/ref=asc_df_B082M99F8Z/?tag=googleshopdes-21&linkCode=df0&hvadid=397083481436&hvpos=&hvnetw=g&hvrand=12323886802432512749&hvpone=&hvptwo=&hvqmt=&hvdev=c&hvdvcmdl=&hvlocint=&hvlocphy=9050522&hvtargid=pla-852739377033&psc=1&ext_vrnc=hi photo credit
  25. https://in.pinterest.com/pin/473440979559487349/ photo credit
  26. https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0000773 photo credit
  27. https://www.discounterpharmacy.com/mosquito-repellent/bushman-deet-80-sunscreen-75gm.html photo credit
  28. https://www.amazon.in/Odomos-Mosquito-Repellent-Cream-100/dp/B01GTEAD6G photo credit
  29. https://alchetron.com/DEET photo credit



Comments

  1. You have a genuine capacity to compose a substance that is useful for us. You have shared an amazing post about mosquito control. Much obliged to you for your endeavors in sharing such information with us.
    mosquito control singapore

    ReplyDelete
  2. Extremely useful information which you have shared here about Mosquito control. This is a great way to enhance knowledge for us, and also beneficial for us. Thank you for sharing an article like this.
    Mosquito control singapore

    ReplyDelete
  3. This is excellent information which is shared by you. This information is meaningful and magnificent for us to increase our knowledge about it. Keep sharing this kind of information. Thank you. Mosquitoes Control Services

    ReplyDelete
  4. In this post you have shared such a great knowledge. I would like to thank you for sharing such an informative post. Keep Posting. pest control tea tree gully

    ReplyDelete
  5. You have Shared great content here about Mosquito control. I am glad to discover this post as I found lots of valuable data in your article. Thanks for sharing an article like this.
    pest control services in Miami

    ReplyDelete
  6. During this post, you have shared fantastic content. This article provided me with some useful information pest control near me. Thank you for sharing that. Keep up the good work.

    ReplyDelete
  7. It’s actually a great and helpful piece of info. I’m happy that you just shared this helpful info with us. Please keep us informed like this. Thanks for sharing! Best termite control Plano Tx service provider.

    ReplyDelete
  8. You have done great work by publishing this article here. It is useful and convenient info for us. Keep upgrading our knowledge by share these types of articles.termite barrier brisbane

    ReplyDelete
  9. The information you've provided is quite useful. It's incredibly instructional because it provides some of the most useful information professional beehive pest control in Qatar. Thank you for sharing that.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Eateries, cheap food outlets, food retailers and food makers all need satisfactory irritation control estimates set up. Bother control should be set up all through the pecking order - from the appearance and capacity of crude fixings, directly through to garbage removal. pest control for restaurant

    ReplyDelete
  11. Very well post. It was an awesome post to read about Waste management services singapore. Complete rich content and fully informative. I totally Loved it .

    ReplyDelete

Post a Comment

Popular posts from this blog

Design equations of Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

Spotters in "Hospital Waste Management" for CFM & MPH students

ORS : A boon in dehydration

Spotters in "Environment and Health: Mosquitoes- Anopheles" for CFM & MPH students

Spotters in "Environment and Health: Insecticides" for CFM & MPH students

Spotters in "Nutrition and Health: Balanced diet models" for CFM & MPH students

How to design a reconfigurable antenna? Step-by-step process.